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Have Researchers Found a Way to Bring Your Hearing Loss Out of Hiding?

Have you ever been out with family or friends someplace where a lot of people were talking around you? Maybe at a restaurant, ball game, or your kids school events? Were you able to clearly hear what your small group was talking about or did you have trouble because their words were overshadowed by the chatter from others nearby?
The definition for “hidden” hearing loss is hearing loss that isn’t able to be detected by standard hearing tests. Many describe it as the inability to hear in a noisy environment. This type of hearing loss isn’t detectable through normal auditory testing. For those who have hidden hearing loss, their test results appear just like those with normal hearing.
Long-term or sudden extreme exposure to loud noises has the ability to cause damage to the delicate hair cells located within the inner ear. In healthy ears, we’re able to pick up sound waves which are then transmitted to the inner ear where vibrations occur. These vibrations act within the fluid-filled cochlea, a small cavity shaped much like a snail. The cochlea is divided into two sections that are separated by the basilar membrane. This membrane serves as the floor that the main hearing structure sits on.
When the vibration from sound waves develop, this causes the fluid that’s inside the cochlea to send ripples along the basilar membrane. The hair cells are able to collect this sound wave and transmit it into an electric signal. That signal is carried to the brain by the auditory nerve which allows us to “hear” the noise. Most learn in childhood to interpret this as a sound that we recognize based on repetition.
For someone with hidden hearing loss, these nerve cells in the ear, as well as the connection to the hair cells, have been damaged. This can make it harder to hear definite sounds in a noisy environment. Areas, where people congregate such as churches, boardrooms, or event centers, can wreak havoc on someone’s ability to follow a conversation.
It’s usually easier to hear quiet sounds when they aren’t being trampled by background noise. The risk of hidden hearing loss is higher in people who regularly use earbuds or headphones and love loud music, as well as people who work in loud environments.
According to Daniel B. Polley, PhD, Director of the Lauer Tinnitus Research Center at Mass. Eye and Ear, Associate Professor of Otolaryngology Head-Neck Surgery at Harvard Medical School and senior study author, “Between the increased use of personal listening devices or the simple fact that the world is a much noisier place than it used to be, patients are reporting as early as middle age that they are struggling to follow conversations in the workplace and in social settings, where other people are also speaking in the background. Current clinical testing can’t pick up what’s going wrong with this very common problem.”
Thanks to a study performed by Polley and his colleagues there may be a way to determine who is dealing with hidden hearing loss. Leaning towards the possibility that this condition stems from “abnormal connectivity and communication of nerve cells in the brain and ear”, the group reviewed over 100,000 patient records from the Massachusetts Eye and Ear. They narrowed it down to 23 test subjects ranging in age from young adult to middle-aged who presented with clinically normal hearing.
The first test that was administered to develop these biomarkers was designed to detect how effectively the beginning stages of sound processing functioned within the brain. By measuring the electrical EEG signals that occur at the surface of the ear, they were able to determine how well the subject detected slight yet rapid variations in the sound waves.
The second test utilized specialty glasses that were designed to measure the changes in a subject’s pupil diameter while they concentrated on a single speaker yet were exposed to other conversations in the background. This test was inspired by research done previously that successfully demonstrated how changes in pupil size could indicate how much cognitive effort one was using on a given task.
True to their expectations, there was a wide variation in the participants’ abilities to track a conversation even though their previous tests had deemed their hearing in the normal range. Based on this form of testing researchers were able to combine the changes in a person’s pupil diameter with measurements from their ear canal EEG.
They were then able to recognize which participants would do well and which ones would struggle to track speech in a noisy environment. These results are encouraging, though more research needs to be done in this area.
“Our study was driven by a desire to develop new types of tests. Our work shows that measuring cognitive effort in addition to the initial stages of neural processing in the brain may explain how patients are able to separate one speaker from a crowd,” shared lead study author Aravindakshan Parthasarathy, PhD, an investigator in the Eaton-Peabody Laboratories at Mass. Eye and Ear.
“Speech is one of the most complex sounds that we need to make sense of,” Dr. Polley said. “If our ability to converse in social settings is part of our hearing health, then the tests that are used have to go beyond the very first stages of hearing and more directly measure auditory processing in the brain.”
If you or a loved one are having trouble hearing where background noise is present, you may have hidden hearing loss. Be sure to mention this when you schedule an appointment with your hearing health professional.

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Can Vitamins Protect Your Hearing?

Vitamins are essential for optimal health. Vitamins can help your vision, promote the growth of cells and tissues throughout the body, protect you from infections, and they help to regulate your immune system. What about your hearing health? Yes, vitamins can benefit your ears too.

Vitamins To Help with Hearing

Research is still in progress as to how effective vitamins are for your hearing health. However, there is present information available to people with hearing loss and those who wish to avoid it for adjusting their diets for the sake of their ears. Here are vitamins that can help your hearing:

  • Carotenoids. This group has functions that are important for human health, antioxidant defense, and cell-to-cell communication. Vitamin A is in this group.
  • Fish oil. There is evidence that fish oil slows down the development of age-related hearing loss.
  • Folate. Also known as B-9, folate is found naturally in many foods and is essential for cell division.
  • Vitamin B-12. This water-soluble vitamin is essential for neurological health. A deficiency can increase your chances of developing tinnitus.
  • Vitamin E. This vitamin helps circulation, including circulation in the inner ear. The hair cells within the inner ear are dependent on flow for good hearing health.
  • Vitamin D. A vitamin that is crucial for bone health, including those small bones in the middle ear.

Minerals In Support Of Hearing

Minerals are necessary for your health and body function. These inorganic substances located in soils and rocks are vital for the body to carry out tasks and processes. Minerals are attained by eating plants that take up the minerals from the earth or by consuming meat from animals that eat plants. There are many critical minerals, and here are some ones that boost healthy hearing:

  • Potassium. This commonplace mineral adjusts fluid in the body and body tissue. Potassium is critical for hearing health due to the fluid in the inner ear. This fluid helps to translate noises into electrical impulses the brain reads as sound. Potatoes, spinach, lima beans, tomatoes, bananas, melons, and milk all contain potassium.
  • Folic acid. Folic acid is essential for new cell growth and slowing down the loss of hearing. Organ meats, spinach, broccoli, and asparagus contain generous amounts of folic acid.
  • Magnesium. Magnesium fights the effects of free radicals released during loud noises. It provides a protective barrier for the hair cells in the inner ear. Foods containing magnesium include bananas, artichokes, potatoes, spinach, and tomatoes.
  • Zinc. Zinc is effective at keeping germs that cause colds and ear infections at bay. There is research that suggests that zinc is efficient at treating tinnitus. Pork, beef, dark-meat chicken, peanuts, beans, and dark chocolate have ample amounts of zinc.

A Balanced Diet

A balanced remains the best way to get the nutrients your body needs for optimal health. For your hearing health, try a diet containing fruits, vegetables, whole grains, proteins, and healthy fats. For good hearing health, it is also essential to have a hearing evaluation with a hearing healthcare professional who can diagnose and treat any hearing loss you may be experiencing.

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Why Identifying Unrecognized Hearing Loss Is So Important

Over 48 million Americans have hearing loss, with estimates of global numbers set to reach in the hundreds of millions in just a few short decades. Though hearing loss is an extremely prevalent condition, it often goes undiagnosed and untreated. Despite the high prevalence of age-related hearing loss, many adults still have hearing loss that never gets recognized, or they choose to forgo treatment options altogether. Older populations may miss the subtle changes in their hearing as they age because the onset is often gradual and slow, or possibly, they do not recognize the subtle changes they are making to compensate for their impaired hearing, such as increasing the volume on television sets or audio devices. To understand how some patients can have hearing loss without even realizing it, a study conducted by Wayne State University observed two groups of adults with and without hearing loss, had given them hearing screenings and had concluded with astounding results.

The Risks of Unrecognized Hearing Loss

Hearing loss can present serious risks for patients who do not seek treatment. Unfortunately, many struggling with hearing loss can wait up to 15 years to finally seek help. Research has shown a clear correlation between hearing loss and serious health complications such as depression, anxiety, a higher risk of suicide, and developing dementia. Communication difficulties are also common, as hearing loss causes higher rates of social isolation and a diminished quality of life. However, a majority of hearing aid users report satisfaction with their device, expressing a better quality of life while protecting their hearing for the long term.
Hearing loss is far more dangerous when unrecognized or undiagnosed. Early identification and intervention are critical for positive long-term outcomes when treating hearing loss. According to a 2012 study by Barbara Hutchinson of North Dakota State University, “In fact, adults who delay treatment until their hearing loss is severe do not respond to interventions as well as those who initiate interventions early in the course of their hearing loss.”

Wayne State University’s Conclusions and Recommendations

Self-defined as aiming “to explore characteristics that differentiate adults with unrecognized hearing loss from those with recognized hearing loss and adults with normal hearing”, researchers could determine how likely it was that a participant who described themselves as having no hearing issues, actually had unrecognized hearing loss. As part of the study, participants would complete a subjective and objective assessment of their physical health, various measures of cognition, and personality assessment of their traits for positive and negative affectivity (emotionality).
The results had proven researchers worry about unrecognized hearing loss to be true. “Participants who volunteered for the normal hearing group underwent hearing screens using a portable audiometer as part of the research study. Of the 69 adults who volunteered for that group, our hearing screens indicated that only 39 had hearing in the normal range. Unrecognized hearing loss was identified in 30 volunteers who had described themselves as having no hearing difficulty.”
The study’s research team had concluded that there is a sizeable subset of patients “who are likely to deny hearing difficulty upon questioning but have meaningful hearing loss.”, going as far as to recommend that new research should explore the best practices in psychoeducation about hearing screening that targets patients who do not endorse hearing loss.
If you believe you are suffering from signs of hearing loss but are not completely sure, it’s time to speak to a hearing health professional for a hearing evaluation. Unrecognized hearing loss should not go untreated.

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Not Just for Sleeping: White Noise Can Improve Your Hearing

Do you have trouble sleeping? Do you turn on relaxing sounds before bed? White noise is used by many to drift off to dreamland at night with machines and even smartphone applications replicating the noise, but a new study by the University of Basel has found that white noise may be able to do much more than help you catch some Z’s. Though it is essentially an extra background noise, researchers have concluded that it can make hearing pure sounds more precise, a realization with the possibility of aiding in the future development of cochlear implants.

How Is White Noise Special?

Most of us associate white noise with the sound an old television set makes without a signal, but white noise is far different than other noise. By definition, white noise is described as a random signal made up of sounds from all the frequencies the human ear can hear, but at the same exact intensity. How does that help you sleep and hear? Since it is created from all of the frequencies the ear and brain can perceive, no sound is uniquely distinct, turning everything you hear into a blurred “hissing” or “shushing” sound. This continuous sound makes it much easier for us to sleep through things such as a door slamming or a ringing phone, as they are folded into the blur and muffled. Next time you put on white noise before going to bed, remember that you are hearing every sound from every frequency between 20Hz to 20,000Hz all at once.

University of Basel’s Findings

Your brain has an extraordinary ability to pick out relevant information from less relevant background noise thanks to an area that processes auditory stimuli called the auditory cortex. Led by Professor Dr.Tania Rinaldi Barkat from the Department of Biomedicine, the University of Basel’s team investigated sound perception and sound discrimination in a challenging sound environment.
Past studies have concluded that the distinction between sounds becomes more difficult the closer they are in frequency, which led researchers to believe that introducing white noise would make the task even more challenging. Despite their beliefs, the opposite was observed, with research concluding that “the brain’s ability to distinguish subtle tone differences improved when white noise was added to the background. Compared to a quiet environment, the noise thus facilitated auditory perception.” But how?

White Noise Reduced Neuronal Activity

Data presented by the group had found that white noise reduced the activity of the nerve cells in the auditory cortex by a significant margin. In contradictory fashion, this inhibition of the neuronal activity led to a more precise perception of pure tones. We found that less overlap occurred between populations of neurons during two separate tone representations,” stated Dr. Barkat. “As a result, the overall reduction in neuronal activity produced a more distinct tone representation.”

This Conclusion May Help In The Future

According to Dr. Barkat, it is possible that cochlear implants could use an effect similar to white noise in order to improve the frequency resolution and in turn, the hearing of their users. To determine whether white noise may help you, speak to a hearing health professional about possible options.

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The Future Is Today: Brain-Controlled Hearing Aids

When you imagine what the future will be like in, say, 20 years, what do you see? Pop culture fosters expectations of flying cars, personal jetpacks, hoverboards, and much more. Some recent technological advances even seem like something you would find in a science fiction novel, not in real life—like self-driving cars, artificial intelligence, and virtual reality technologies.
Another futuristic advancement that may soon be a reality is more closely related to current hearing devices than to flying cars: brain-controlled hearing aids. Hearing aids have already seen numerous advances and developments in recent years, making them more effective than ever before. Today’s hearing aids are smaller, more comfortable, more discreet, and more powerful than those of years past.
Even with recent advances, hearing aids are still imperfect. One area where hearing aid users often notice a big difference from before they wore or needed hearing aids is in listening to a speaker when other noise is present. In a person with normal hearing, your brain distinguishes between the target speaker and all other noises, allowing you to focus on the target and minimize your attention to other speakers or sounds.
However, hearing aids cannot automatically perform this same function. If you increase the volume on your hearing aid in an effort to better hear the target speaker, you are also increasing the volume on all of the background noise. Some hearing aids allow the user to identify a target speaker by turning their head or gaze towards the target speaker, or by manually selecting the target speaker. These features are helpful yet imperfect; if the hearing aid user cannot maintain a gaze in the direction of the target speaker, does not want to use manual selections, or the target speaker is very close to another speaker, these features come up short.
Enter brain-controlled hearing aids. Previous research has determined that when a person focuses their listening efforts on a certain speaker in a noisy environment, their brain waves track the voice of the target speaker. The aim of a brain-controlled hearing aid is to monitor the brainwaves of the user in order to facilitate hearing and amplifying the voice of the target speaker.
Although much research and development remains to be explored in this field, recent research has shown promise in separating and amplifying the sound of a target speaker among background noise and other speakers. In a 2019 experiment, researchers used an auditory attention decoding (AAD) process to detect and amplify a target speaker among mixed background noise. The study participants indicated that it was significantly easier to follow the voice of the target speaker in the AAD-enhanced audio than in the original mixed audio. This advance can be used in brain-controlled hearing aids to amplify the voice of the target speaker and enable the listener to better follow a specific voice.
One major obstacle that remains to be overcome by researchers is determining a noninvasive and nonintrusive way to monitor the brain signals of the hearing aid user. This, along with an AAD process that accurately and rapidly identifies the target speaker, will present a challenge for researchers and developers. Still, the promise of brain-controlled hearing aids is very real and is closer than we may realize today.
For more information about brain-controlled hearing aids and other exciting advancements in the audiology field, we encourage you to contact our hearing professional today.

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How Clean is Too Clean? Cotton Swabs Can Be Harmful To Your Ears

Most would agree that good hygiene is an important aspect of your health, but how clean is too clean? When it comes to your ears, cleaning them with cotton swabs can actually damage your hearing and your eardrum. Despite their common usage in movies or at your local pharmacy, Q-Tips can be more harmful than helpful, leading the Scottish Parliament to ban plastic cotton buds this year in an effort to combat excessive litter and reduce their usage for inadvisable ear cleaning. Though it is admirable to try and maintain a healthy body, there is a wide consensus against cotton swabs for cleaning your ears. If you are experiencing a blockage, it is best to receive help from a medical professional, but when it comes to your day to day hygiene, let your ears handle it on their own. Your hearing will thank you.

How Can Cotton Swabs Damage My Ear?

Though they seem like the perfect length and shape to clean your ears, there is a consensus against cotton swabs for a reason. Puncturing your eardrum with a cotton swab due to going too far into the ear canal is more common than you might think, especially in children. This accidental puncture can not only damage your hearing but may also result in painful ear infections and an accumulation of fluid and bacteria. Not so hygienic, right?
Depending on the material your Q-Tip is made out of, it may also be abrasive to the sensitive skin within your ear. Some cotton swabs utilize a paper or plastic stick, which can scratch or puncture fragile areas of the ear resulting in infection, vertigo, and even permanent deafness.

Cleaning Your Ear Can Actually Be Counterproductive

Instead of removing ear wax, cotton swabs may actually push it deeper into the ear, compacting it and making your wax harder to remove. This misplaced wax can cause a whole host of problems, including ear fullness, hearing loss, and you guessed it: infection. If a blockage is created by your cotton swab, you may need to seek treatment from a doctor for removal, causing many more problems than they solve.

Your Ear Is Designed To Clean Itself

Earwax, also known as Cerumen, is an important part of your ear’s environment. Cerumen coats the inner ear protecting fragile cells and trapping dust and debris. Without this defense,  debris can travel to your inner ear and damage structures that we require to hear. Removing this natural part of the ear’s ecosystem can not only cause damage to your hearing but will actually make your ear less hygienic. Your body is designed to move earwax out of your ear through natural movements such as chewing, yawning, or skin cell growth inside the ear. Without this process, dust and debris may build up within the ear and cause infection, leading doctors to give simple advice when it comes to cleaning your ears: Don’t!
If you are experiencing ear pain, fullness, hearing loss, or suspect you may have an unnatural amount of earwax, it is best to consult a hearing health professional. You may be suffering from an infection that requires antibiotics or may need something as simple as proper cleaning.

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EARS Hearing Healthcare is Proud to Support The Hearing Health Foundation

As the holiday season ends, we’re reminded of all the things we’re thankful for. Not only are we grateful to support our patients with their hearing concerns, but we appreciate the opportunity to help others in need. It’s not just the immediate people around us that can benefit from generosity; you can make a difference in the world no matter where you are.
At EARS Hearing Healthcare, we are a proud supporter of a variety of charities and noteworthy causes. This winter, we’ve extended our reach to support the Hearing Health Foundation. We’re committed to the welfare of others and are grateful that we can encourage this fantastic organization and the important work they’re doing.
Our staff thanks you for the gift you give us daily – being able to help you with your hearing needs. It’s what makes our job truly special.
Season’s greetings!

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The Structure Of A Hearing Aid And How It Works

A hearing loss can have a profound impact on your life, your career, and your relationships. If you choose the correct one, a hearing aid can make a significant difference in your ability to communicate while enhancing your enjoyment of life. Knowing what goes into the design of hearing aids will help you choose the most appropriate device for your hearing needs. Regardless of the style of hearing aid you have, all hearing aids share three essential components:

  • The hearing aid microphone picks up sounds and sends them to the amplifier. New technology distinguishes between speech and background noise, making it easier to understand a conversation.
  • Converting sounds from the microphone into an electrical signal and then sending the message to the receiver is the function of the amplifier. Amplification power is dependent upon the severity of the user’s hearing loss.
  • Power source. Batteries power the hearing device. Batteries may be either rechargeable or disposable, depending on the model.

These three components are in all hearing aids. Depending on the design and the severity of your hearing loss, a few other parts might be residing inside your hearing aid.

Buttons And Switches

Hearing aids that are of the receiver-in-the-ear (RITE) type come equipped with a button or a switch. A hearing healthcare professional programs the button or switch to perform different functions such as alternating between settings or increasing and decreasing volume. Make a point of knowing the purpose of your switch.

Wire

A hearing aid wire is typically thin and coated in plastic. The wire extends from the body of the hearing aid to the speaker, which resides in the ear. The transmission of power and signals takes place in the wire. Hearing aid wires feature conductor materials, shielding, and jacketing manufactured for custom hearing solutions.

Receiver/Speaker

Delivering the sound to the ear is the responsibility of the receiver, which is also known as the speaker. When the speaker receives an electrical signal from the amplifier, it converts it to sound. The speaker is inside the ear dome or earmold, depending on the severity of hearing loss and lifestyle.

Domes

A dome is a small piece of silicone that attaches to hearing aid tubing and fits deep in the ear canal. Domes come in an array of shapes and sizes to accommodate the unique anatomy of a person’s ear canal. A hearing healthcare professional can help you pick the appropriate size for a proper fit.

Earmold

Earmolds are plastic or acrylic and fit inside your ear canal to form an acoustic seal for the electronic sound coming in. The fit and the shape of your earmold will depend on the model of hearing aid you are utilizing and the severity of your hearing loss. Because they provide the highest amount of amplification, earmolds are for those with severe to profound hearing loss.
Hearing loss is a severe health issue, so do not ignore it. If you suspect that you may have a hearing loss, schedule a hearing screening with a hearing healthcare professional. Swift acting will significantly enhance the quality of your life.

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Over-The-Counter Hearing Aids; What Does This Mean for Audiology?

As technology and medical research continue to advance, more facets of your healthcare are becoming increasingly over the counter, whether that be medication, devices, or just medical advice. Treatment for hearing loss is no exception, with over the counter hearing aids becoming an imminent reality, invoking worry in many audiologists across the country. As hearing aids become more accessible over the counter, audiologists fear the impact on their profession and practice. This disruptive innovation is poised to achieve a new market foothold, becoming a more attractive option to new consumers who are looking for the most convenient and simple transition into hearing aids, taking business from traditional hearing aid manufacturers and audiologists who often bundle devices into their services. Though they seem convenient, the introduction of OTC hearing aids shows that despite intentions to increase accessibility and reduce costs, patients are not receiving the treatment they desperately need in exchange for ease.

Don’t Bypass Your Doctors Appointment Just Yet

According to the OTC Hearing Aid Act, the intention was to increase accessibility and affordability of devices, though OTC hearing aids have done little to achieve those goals. In fact, they hinder the ability of patients to get the information and proper assessments that they should have before finding the most effective hearing aid. OTC Hearing Aids utilize a business model designed to bypass diagnostic evaluations, hearing needs assessments, and audiologists all together in favor of self-identifying a device. Not only does this keep patients out of their doctor’s office, but also from receiving the medical advice they may need, ignoring the advocation by organizations such as the American Academy of Audiology for required medical evaluations for OTC hearing aids. Moreover, “receiving an OTC device is expected to be based on self-perceived mild to moderate hearing loss, not measured hearing capability that directly aligns with the definition provided by ASHA.”
 
As hearing loss can differ greatly from patient to patient, it’s critical that patients do not bypass professional medical advice. Herein lies the fear of audiologists, as numerous unofficial polls conducted via social media and trade publications have documented the anxiety had by medical professionals as OTC devices are positioned to impact not only their practice but their profession as a whole.

Changing Public Perception

To combat this imminent and disruptive technology, Audiologists must aim to change public perception about the importance of their profession and medical advice regarding hearing loss. ”The efforts of the profession should be focused not on a device, but rather on educating the public such that they recognize audiologists’ value and demand access to it.” says Dr. Sarah Sydlowski, Audiology Director of the Otolaryngology department at Cleveland Clinic, ”Take every opportunity to reinforce the value audiologists provide. Emphasize the importance of a hearing evaluation before deciding to use any hearing device. Help the public understand that an inappropriate hearing device can be as detrimental as no hearing device.” With proper advocation, audiologists can continue to give the critical information required for patients with hearing loss, ensuring that patients do not give up their doctors for convenience.

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Treating Hearing Loss With Inner Ear Drug Delivery

Hearing loss has a tremendous impact on our quality of life. The ability to hear is a vital part of our overall sensory experience and our connection to the world around us. The impact of hearing loss may be profound, with consequences for the social, functional, and psychological well-being of the person. A hearing impairment limits our engagement and affects our self-identity. Because many people with hearing loss neglect treatment due to the options available, a pharmaceutical approach to treatment may be the answer. New research is focusing on the inner ear for effective drug delivery.

Medications

Although there are 466 million people worldwide who have hearing loss, there are no FDA-approved drugs available for preventing and treating inner ear disorders. A lack of clinical experience involving the inner ear creates challenges for the pharmaceutical companies that are developing inner ear medications. With indications such as ototoxicity and Meniere’s disease, these companies are developing therapies such as otoprotection, hair cell regeneration, and gene therapy. Selecting the most appropriate delivery method that will transport the medication is of vital importance.

Delivery Method

Inner ear drug delivery involves three routes of administration: intratympanic, intracochlear, and systemic. Intratympanic uses a syringe injection to the tympanic membrane to deliver a drug across the middle ear and into the cochlea. This route is beneficial for administering drug solutions, drug suspensions, and injectable gels. Intracochlear is the transfer of the drug into the cochlea. Although this method is precise, it is also high-risk. An injection, a perfusion system, or a cochlear implant device are the delivery methods for this route. Systemic delivery is the favored route for future delivery as it poses a low risk for complications and is more comfortable for patients. Research is focusing on finding new systemic administration methods for ear therapy.

Advancements

There is progress in the improvement of inner ear drug delivery systems. Drug targeting, gene and stem cell therapy, and hair cell regeneration are making effective inner ear drug delivery a reality. Collaboration is vital for translating lab bench results into viable treatment options. Researchers feel confident that partnership will overcome the challenges of administering therapy directly to the inner ear.

Challenges

There are obstacles to be cleared in the development of efficient inner ear drug delivery systems. The main problem is not knowing the exact drug formulation for the intended drug delivery system. Another issue is the conversion of clinical findings that utilized animal models to applications for humans. What works in a rat may not be successful in a human. For systemic drug delivery, achieving a therapeutic dose in the inner ear after crossing the blood-labyrinth barrier without side-effects is the goal.

The Future

Inner ear therapies will encourage patients to seek care for their hearing loss. As an alternative to a hearing device, drugs provide a long-lasting, convenient, and efficient treatment option. The research team hopes that inner ear drug delivery systems will lay the groundwork for effective prevention and treatment with medications.